Is it poisonous?

Top 10 Most Venomous Snakes in Europe: A Comprehensive Guide



Europe may not be home to many venomous snakes compared to other continents like Africa and Asia, but it does hold some species that can be dangerous to humans. Snake bites from these venomous serpents can lead to severe pain, swelling, and in some cases, even death. This article presents a comprehensive guide on the top 10 most venomous snakes in Europe to help you stay safe while exploring the European outdoors.

1. Common European Adder (Vipera berus)

The Common European Adder, also known as the European Viper, is one of the most venomous snakes found throughout Europe. It has a distinct zigzag pattern on its back and has a wide geographical range, spanning from the United Kingdom to the northwestern parts of Asia. Though their bites rarely cause fatalities, they can cause significant pain, swelling, and even temporary paralysis.

2. Nose-horned Viper (Vipera ammodytes)

Often considered the most dangerous of European vipers, the Nose-horned Viper is mainly found in the Balkans, Italy, and parts of Austria. The venom of this snake can cause severe symptoms such as dizziness, vomiting, and even kidney failure. A distinctive feature of this species is the horn-like scale on its snout, giving it a unique appearance.

3. Milos Viper (Macrovipera schweizeri)

Endemic to the islands in Greece, the Milos Viper is a critically endangered species with extremely toxic venom. They are characterized by their large size and distinct dorsal pattern. Bites from a Milos Viper can cause excruciating pain, fluid-filled blisters, and potentially even death if not treated promptly.

4. Lataste’s Viper (Vipera latastei)

Found primarily in parts of Spain, Portugal, and North Africa, Lataste’s Viper is a venomous snake with moderately toxic venom. They sport a beautiful, dark coloration with a distinct zigzag dorsal pattern. Symptoms from a bite can vary, but can include pain, swelling, and drowsiness.

5. Orsini’s Viper (Vipera ursinii)

Native to the hilly and mountainous regions of Europe, Orsini’s Viper is a small but dangerous venomous snake. Its venom is less potent than that of other European vipers but can still result in intense local pain and swelling. It is characterized by its unique pattern of narrow bands running along its back.

6. European Cat Snake (Telescopus fallax)

Found predominantly in parts of southeastern Europe and the eastern Mediterranean region, the European Cat Snake is an agile, rear-fanged snake that predominantly preys on lizards. Although its venom is not as potent as that of the European vipers, it can cause mild symptoms, such as local pain and swelling.

7. Montpellier Snake (Malpolon monspessulanus)

The Montpellier Snake is a large, rear-fanged venomous snake primarily found in the Mediterranean region. Known for their agility and aggressive behavior, these snakes possess venom that can lead to symptoms like local pain, headache, and vomiting. Montpellier Snakes are also known for their large eyes and distinct hood marking on their heads.

8. Seoane’s Viper (Vipera seoanei)

Native to northern Spain and parts of Portugal, Seoane’s Viper is a venomous snake whose venom is less potent than others in the European viper family. Their bites can cause symptoms such as localized pain and swelling. They can be recognized by their varying color patterns, which can include a zigzag pattern or bands across their backs.

9. Asp Viper (Vipera aspis)

Found in the mountainous areas of southern Europe, the Asp Viper is a venomous snake equipped with dangerous hemotoxic venom. Bites can lead to severe symptoms, including intense pain, swelling, and even localized tissue necrosis. Asp Vipers can be identified by their keeled scales and distinct dorsal pattern.

10. European Copperhead (Austrelaps superbus)

Though not native to Europe, the European Copperhead has made its way into parts of southeastern Europe by accidental introduction. This venomous snake poses a significant risk to humans, as its venom can cause severe pain, swelling, and necrosis. They are characterized by their copper-colored head and reddish-brown to gray body.


Although Europe is not home to many venomous snakes, it is essential to be cautious and aware of these potentially dangerous species when exploring the European landscape. Understanding the specific characteristics and habitats of these snakes can help in identification and prevention of serious complications due to snakebite.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)

  • Q: Are all snakes in Europe venomous?
  • A: No, only a small number of snake species in Europe are venomous. The majority of European snakes are harmless to humans.
  • Q: What should I do if I am bitten by a venomous snake in Europe?
  • A: If bitten by a venomous snake, one should seek medical help immediately. Avoid trying to suck out the venom or applying tourniquets, as these methods may worsen the situation.
  • Q: Can I find anti-venom for European snakes?
  • A: Yes, anti-venom for most European snake species can be found. However, it is crucial to seek professional medical assistance to receive proper treatment.

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